Sailing Guide

Gulf of Mannar (SE India)

Gulf of Mannar (SE India)

Characteristics

Description

The Gulf of Mannar lies between the SE coast of the Indian Peninsula and the W coast of Sri Lanka. Its S boundary lies between Cape Comorin, the S extremity of India, and Point de Galle, the SW point of Sri Lanka. The gulf is bounded N by Adam’s Bridge, a chain of islets and rocks extending from the E end of Pamban Island to Mannar Island, about 16 miles ESE.

The NW coast of the Gulf of Mannar is, with the exception of the mountains extending N from Cape Comorin, generally low and sandy, with the mountains lying about 55 miles inland.
This level plain has an average elevation of about 50m, and gradually rises toward Cape Comorin.

The W coast of Sri Lanka is low and planted with coconut trees. Inland, the foothills of the mountain district abreast Colombo begin about 20 miles from the coast.

Winds—Weather

The coast covered by this sector is, like the rest of Sri Lanka, predominantly in a region of the monsoon.
Of the four phases to be considered the Southwest Monsoon is the most important, followed by the Northeast Monsoon. Between these two monsoon are the spring and autumn transitions with their light and unsteady winds.

In the Gulf of Mannar, the Northeast Monsoon is steadiest in January and has much weakened by March. The wind becomes light and variable toward the end of April, and squally showers are common.

The Southwest Monsoon is usually established sometime in May and gains strength in June. From July to the end of September fresh SW winds prevail, with mainly fair weather at the end of the gulf. The wind usually moderates near the head of the gulf at night and in the early morning and freshens again in the afternoon as a result of land and sea breeze effect. In October the wind is more variable and there are heavy squalls with rain in the latter part of the month.

In November, the wind is normally between WNW and NE and the weather is very unsettled with frequent heavy squalls and rain; the Northeast Monsoon usually becomes established by about the end of the month.

Marine sanctuary

The Gulf of Mannar is known to harbour over 3,600 species of flora and fauna, making it one of the richest coastal regions in Asia.
In 1986, a group of 21 islets lying off the Tamil Nadu coast between Thoothukudi and Dhanushkodi were declared the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. The park and its 10 km buffer zone were declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1989.

The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 10,500 km² of ocean, islands and the adjoining coastline. The islets and coastal buffer zone includes beaches, estuaries, and tropical dry broadleaf forests, while the marine environments include seaweed communities, sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests.

20/03/2012
Update
Jojo
Gulf of Mannar (SE India)
Gulf of Mannar (SE India)
20/03/2012
Update
Jojo
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Localisation

To precisely geolocate this site. Update if necessary.
Sites around Gulf of Mannar (SE India)
Flying distances - Direct line

Approaches Pamban Pass (E India)

Mansfield Patch, with a least depth of 5.8m, about 7 miles SE of Kundagal Point, is the N and shallowest of a group of detached patches.
Batt Patch, with a least depth of 4.9m, lies about 2.8 miles WNW of Mansfield Patch; the sea breaks on Batt Patch in a fresh breeze. Manauli ...
20 Mar 12

Tiruchendur Point (Tamil Nadu-E India)

Tiruchendur Point is a low, rocky bluff headland, with a prominent dark-colored temple, 54m high, at its extremity. This pagoda is a useful mark and can be seen for a distance of about 15 miles.
A conspicuous chimney, 28m high, painted in red and white bands and emitting a flame, ...
20 Mar 12

Kariya Shuli and Vilangu Shuli islets (Pattanamarudur-E India)

The town of Pattanamarudur, with some large trees visible up to 10 miles offshore, lies at thehead of this bight, about 7 miles N of Tuticorin.
The bight is filled by a flat, with depths of less than 5.5m, extending up to about 4.5 miles offshore. Kariya Shuli and Vilangu Shuli, ...
20 Mar 12

Manappad Point (SE India)

Manappad Point is a high sandy promontory with a rock base. A light is shown from a white, round concrete tower with red diagonal stripes.
The village of Manappad lies 0.8 mile W of the point.
Manappad Outer Shoal, with a least depth of 6.4m, lies about 8 miles SE of Manappad ...
20 Mar 12

Punnaikkayal (E India)

Punnaikkayal, about 1 mile inland, can be identified by the ruins of a church and by a group of palmyra trees on the beach.
A 4.6m patch lies about 3 miles E of the village.Anchorage in 7.3m, can be found off Punnaikkayal, about 1.5 miles offshore, with the clump of trees bearing ...
20 Mar 12

Valinokkam Point (E India)

Caution.—Vessels, other than small coasting vessels, should not approach the coast between Tuticorin and Valinokkam Point, about 37 miles NE, closer than 6 or 7 miles due to the many off-lying shoals.The coast between Valinokkam Point and Ramen Point, about 32 miles ENE, is fronted ...
20 Mar 12

Chidambaranar (Tuticorin) Port (E India)

Tuticorin (Tuttukuddi) is the largest commercial town on the W side of the Gulf of Mannar.Chidambaranar Port is an artificial deep-sea harbour formed with rubble mound type parallel breakwaters projecting into the sea for about 4 km. (Length of North breakwater is 4098.66 m, length ...
20 Mar 12

Tuticorin

Port protected by a breakwater.
27 Mar 12

East Cape (E India)

East Cape is prominent, and the coastal reef, with depths of 5.5m, extends about 1 mile offshore near the cape.AnchorageShelter from W winds can be found in the bight between Cape Comorin and East Cape, but during the Southwest Monsoon landing by ship’s boats should not be attempted ...
19 Mar 12

Ramen Point ( Tamil Nadu-E India)

Ramen Point is the E extremity of a narrow tongue of land projecting E from the coast.
A  temple in ruins lies about 183m W of the point; a coconut plantation lies about 183m farther W.
The coast from Ramen Point to Devipattanam, about 21 miles NW, is generally low and ...
23 Mar 12

Pamban Pass (Tamil Nadu-E India)

Pamban Pass is the navigable channel, partly artificial, through the banks which occupy the space between the W end of Pamban Island and the mainland.
It is of great advantage to coastal craft trading between ports on the W coast of India and ports of the Bay of Bengal.
A rocky ...
23 Mar 12

Pamban port (Pamban Island-E India)

Pamban, administered by a conservator, lies close N of the W extremity of Pamban Island. Cargo is handled by lighters to and from the beach.South and SW winds prevail from April to October.
23 Mar 12
Local Area

Coromandel coast (E India)

The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian Subcontinent between Cape Comorin and False Divi Point.
It may also include the southeastern coast of the island of Sri Lanka.
The coast is generally low, and punctuated by the deltas of several large ...
23 Mar 12

East Coast of India

India, or the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east.
In the Indian Ocean, India ...
20 Mar 12

Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal (largest bay in the world,) forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma (Myanmar) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (part of India) to the ...
20 Nov 11

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering about 20% of the Earth's water surface. It is bounded on the north by Asia (including the Indian subcontinent, after which it is named); on the west by Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, ...
6 Apr 12

Palk Strait North side (E India)

The N shore of Palk Strait consists of the low-lying coast between Point Calimere and a low point, about 39 miles WSW, which projects from the coast close S of the entrance to the Vellar River.
Between Point Calimere and Atirampattinam, about 29 miles W, the coast consists of mud ...
23 Mar 12

Nizampatam Bay (Andhra Pradesh-E India)

Nizampatam Bay lies between Kottapatam and False Divi Point, about 41 miles ENE, and recedes about 14 miles to the N. Except for the shoals in the vicinity of Mutapolli Bank, the bay is free from dangers and its shores may be approached with safety to a depth of 9.1m.A backwater is ...
28 Mar 12
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