The Gulf of Martaban is entered between Baragua Point and the coast extending N abreast of Kalegauk Island, about 140 miles to the E.
The Sittang River flows into the head of the gulf, about 75 miles N of the entrance. The Rangoon River and the Moulmein River enter the sea on the NW and E sides, respectively, of the gulf.
The entire area of the gulf is shallow and anchorage can be taken anywhere with a suitable draft, but prior to anchoring the direction of the tidal current should be noted and very little chain veered until the vessel stems it.
In 1981, a dangerous wreck was reported to lie in position 15°20'20"N, 96°36'12"E, about 60 miles SSE of Rangoon River Western Channel Entrance.
In 1985, natural gas was discovered in large quantities up to 100 miles offshore in the Gulf of Martaban.